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South Carolina
The Letters and Papers
Captain Charles Manning Furman
University of South Carolina
South Carolina

Captain Charles Manning Furman
Company H,16th S.C.V.

Music by Dayle K.

Captain Charles Manning Furman
Company H
Sixteenth South Carolina

Charles Manning Fuman - Professor of English at Clemson College. Was born in Darlington County, South Carolina, July 8, 1840. Son of Rev. J.C. Furman, D.D. He was educated at the high school of Charleston, and Furman University from which institution he was graduated, in 1859. Read law, in Charleston, until May 1861. Then enlisted in the Palmetto Guard, Second South Carolina Volunteers (Kershaw's Regiment). Served in Virginia, from Bull Run to Sharpsburg; transferred to an artillery company on the coast, in December 1862; elected lieutenant in Company H, Sixteenth South Carolina, in July 1863. Soon promoted to captaincy. Served until the war closed, with Army of the West, under Bragg, Johnson, and Hood. After the war, he engaged in teaching. One year, in Maryland and eight years at Bethel College, Kentucky. He returned to South Carolina in 1877, and practiced law, in Greenville, until elected to the position he now holds. He was appointed assistant United States District attorney, under Cleveland's administration in 1886.
Men of the Time: South Carolina, 1902, Garlington

Charles Manning Furman, oldest son of Dr. James Clement Furman, was born at Society Hall, South Carolina, in July 1840. He moved with his father to Greenville, South Carolina, in 1851; he graduated from Furman University in 1859 and served in the Second Carolina Regulars in the War Between the States, becoming Captain of Company A, 16th South Carolina Regulars. (This is in error, Company H is correct.) After the war he taught school and studied law, returning to Greenville in 1877 to begin the practice of law. From 1886 to 1889 he filled the office of Assistant U.S. District attorney under appointment of President Grover Cleveland. Subsequently he was appointed head of the English Department at Clemson College in 1890. During his life he was able to help his Alma Mater by acting in a proprietary and advisory capacity as the growth and development of Greenville and Furman University were taking place.

Alester Garden Furman was the eldest son of Charles Manning and he was born in 1869. Furman is related by his marriage to Fannie Garden to both Henry DeSaussure Garden who served on the Brigade Staff of General Gist, and to Captain Hugh Garden, who is the namesake of Garden's Battery or the Palmetto Light Artillery Battery, this unit should not be confused with the Palmetto Battalion Light Artillery. He would also be related to the Gibb's family of Columbia, Captain and Lt. Gibbs of Company D, by his marriage to the Garden family.

Furman's late life account of his service at Sharpsburg and Franklin.

Furman is also covered in, A History of the Second South Carolina Infantry, 1861-1865, Wyckoff, The Furman Legend, and the Cyclopedia of Eminent and Representative South Carolinians of the Nineteenth Century. Furman's Letters are found in the manuscript collection of the University of South Carolina.

"Charlie" also uses the archaic form of "ss" so those are presented as "fs", I am no Enlish major, as any reader is well aware. However, I very much like the presentation as he prepared it. As in most things technical, my thanks to Susan.

The following people deserve all our thanks: Susan, whose transcription skills are without peer, Mac Wyckoff, The Greenville County Library, and the University of South Carolina for the information on this page. The letters reside in the manuscript collection of University of South Carolina and with the family. My thanks to them for their guidance and generous sharing of their holdings. Finally, my thanks to Senator Verne Smith of the State of South Carolina for his assistance.

Charles M. Furman
Enlisted 1 May 1861 Charleston SC
2nd SCV
Mustered in May 22 1861
Enlisted Jan 23 1863 PBLA Co. A
Tranfsferred from Co. I, 2nd SCV.
On detailed duty as A. A. to Maj. Izard.
Elected Lt. 16th Regt. SCV 5th of Aug.
3rd Lt. Co. H-July & Aug 1863
Elected 2nd Lt. Aug 8 1863
Capt. Co.H--Nov, Dec 1863 CSR.
Promoted Dec 8 1863 Captain.

Citadel Green
Aug 12 1863
Private CM Furman of my Battery having received a lieutenant commifson in the 16th Regt. SCV. I respectfully request that he be relieved from duty with my Battery & be ordered to report at the Head Qtr of the 16th Regt. SCV.
Wm. E. Earle

The first letter is from H.D. Garden to his sister Fannie. Charlie's letters follow in the order in which they were written from the Sixteenth. The second group are from his service with the artillery on the coast near Charleston. The final group are his early war letters from the time he served with the Second South Carolina Infantry.

The Road Not Taken
Robert Frost

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.

Headquarters Gist Brigade
June 4th 1864
Dear Fan,

I think you have entirely forgotten your promise to write to me, and as you know where I am, and have a great-deal more time for such things than I have, it is natural to suppose it is disinclination to write which prevents you from doing so however I have promised Ma to write you, so here goes for a short note. Charlie has no doubt given you a faithful and correct account of our Marches, countermarches, skirmishes, etc, so I’ll not say anything about the campaign except it promises to be a long one. The Federal army is now changing its position which will oblige us to make a corresponding change. We will whip the enemy when a general engagement does occur and are getting (anxious?) for it to come off. Do you recollect Miss Lou Shackleford; While near Resaca I happened upon Col Greens house, and recollecting that Emma Holmes had a school mate from that portion of the country by the name of Green, I naturally supposed that she was the daughter of the Col. I called in and found that I was correct, and was also agreeably surprised to find my old sweetheart Miss Shackleford there on a visit. I could not stay but a few moments as our Division was under marching orders. They are all refugees in Atlanta now I believe. I have not seen Charlie for a day or two but believe he is well.

Well Fan I was interrupted in my letter on the fourth, and resume it today the 9th only to close

for really there is nothing I can say that is of any interest. Everything is distressingly dull, for the last two or three days we can not even hear the familiar crack of a rifle or the occasional boom of artillery. The Yankees are supposed to be fortifying a short distance ahead of us on the Altoona ridges and moving gradually towards our right while we are doing the same thing. If the two armies continue in this way for the next week we will have this portion of the country pretty well ____for fifteen or twenty miles. Have you heard from Hugh. I wrote to Ma this morning. She says Aunt Mary has sickness in the family. Would you not like to see Charlie more? He looks as fat and tough as the Breast Works when just built. We are going to leave tonight__________(line faded)…….Well it is to be hoped after the many lines we have thrown up, a chance may yet occur to lay out a few blue coats in front of ____. I think perhaps the Feds may be getting closer today as I can now hear an occasional random shot along our picket line, they will not attack him; that is not exactly Shermans idea, he wants us to attack him, and that is not exactly our idea, as we have not quite as many men to loose as Grant has in Va. We will whip him out of his boots tho’ as soon as we do engage and that so badly there will not be a Spotsylvania after our wilderness. I wish we could make this fight at once, and then go to the assistance of our friends in Va. There the campaign proves to be a long and tedious one, ours can be terminated one way or the other by one general engagement, and we do not fear the results although the enemy largely outnumbers us. Write soon Fan, remember me to Miss Eliza & Miss Dora.
from your affectionate brother,
Des Garden

This letter is from Des Garden (Henry DeSaussure Garden) to his sister. Written early in the Atlanta battles, he is full of optimism. The pain of Georgia is visible, as the war becomes a war of refugees. Charlie is Captain Charles Furman of the Sixteenth South Carolina and Hugh is Hugh Garden, of Garden's Battery, serving in the east with Lee.

Montgomery Ala Aug 26, ‘63

My Dearest Fan,
The hotel pen is so bad that I quit in disgust. I have reached the above named place without special adventure of any kind. I passed through Augusta early yesterday morning through Atlanta towards evening, and reached this place about breakfast time this morning. Here I remain till 8 oclock tonight waiting for the Selma boat.

You saw I was right in my prediction. The bombardment of Sumter has commenced in earnest and a section of Earle’s Battery is already on Morris Island—now would you not prefer my being in Miss to my being on Morris Island—there is an argument and ___which I think must convince you-does it not.

Georgia is most abundantly supplied with pretty girls. One sees them on all sides. The cars were generally much crowded so much so as to render sleeping very difficult if not impofsible. I consequently look forward with some degree of pleasure to my comfortable quarters on

the boat which plies between this place and Selma. It is less than thirty-six hours from Charleston to Montgomery, a little more than that from Montgy to Sumter. It seems to me therefore that you ought to hear from Morton in four days, unless there is great lofs of time in changing the mails. I will try to get the ambrotype finished today but doubt whether I can do so- since I have so few hours to remain in the city.
Give my love to mamma & believe me fondly your own.
Charlie M. Furman. I will write to you from Morton, excuse brevity.
To Fannie

Gist’s Brigade moved to Mississippi in May of 1863, Charlie Furman is traveling behind them, having decided that the artillery was not for him. He is headed to join the 16th South Carolina, which has moved to Morton, Mississippi with the Brigade. Charlie is not aware, or does not appear to be aware, that even as he writes the brigade of General Gist is on the move. The terrible times in Mississippi are drawing to an end. Elements of the brigade were going to join Bragg in Tennessee, or Georgia, or wherever the Army of Tennessee was to be found. On occasion, I don’t think even Bragg knew, what we know is that there is a storm coming, full force, to a place called Chickamauga. As we will see, Charlie will find them before the next big battle of the war, but that is in the future. Today, he has found a home with the 16th South Carolina and he liked the Georgia gals, something we may be certain that was not lost on his dear Fan. Earle’s Battery, Company A, Palmetto Light Artillery Battalion is being shaken out and Charlie chose well, for many of the men associated with the Palmetto Light Artillery are headed for the Sixteenth, though they are unaware of that. Both the 16th and the P.B.L.A. will miss the immediate battles seen in their future but the men will meet again as Johnson defends Atlanta and the coastal units are forced to send men to serve in units taking part in that bitter fighting. Charlie is a veteran of some of the hardest fighting ever done on this continent, he saw Sharpsburg, up close and personal, he knew the cornfield by the Dunker Church. He knows what probably is in his future and like most men he wishes to leave an image, a photograph to be remembered in. He does not know the future however, if he did, how different his choices might be. The most enduring observation in this letter, is that hotel pens never change, I doubt they ever will.

Camp near Rome Ga.
Sept 11th 1863

Yesterday morning Col. Colquith commanding the Brigade received from Gen. Gist—who commands in the vicinity of Rome-- orders to have his command prepared for immediate action. A little before dark we- that is the 16th Regt & the 8th Ga Battalion were ordered to support the pickets. We marched something like nine miles and took position in line acrofs some fields, built a fence acrofs the road, planted two pieces of artillery in position and awaited the enemy who were expected to come in the shape of a cavalry raid upon Rome. They did not come however and we were ordered back to camp. The last news which I have heard is that the enemy is advancing slowly—some ten thousand by this source—the news came from a cavalry man, so I don’t know that it is to be relied on. It is getting so late that I can scarcely see so I must close for tonight. Good night Love— Sept 12th. I have not seen a paper for a day or two and hence do not know what you know through them. Tennessee is I believe

entirely in the hands of the enemy. Bragg has I learn evacuated Chattanooga and is making preparations to make his Hd Qts at Rome. Well it may be best but why is it that Bragg so often retreats. It is claimed that we won a victory at Murfreesboro, when we retreated from that place. Then from point to point, he is gradually driven, till now he has lost all Tenn & a part of Ga. The Yankees hold Ringgold on the Atlanta & Chatta. RR— Burnside is in E. Tenn. Crittenden I suppose crossed at Chattanooga. Two Army Corp and some forty to 75000 men are in N.W. Ga. and advancing. I believe Bragg must of necefsity I think fight before long. I have no information as to the whereabouts of the bulk of his army. (Line faded)_____

I am anxious to hear from Charleston. Give my love to Dora and tell her where I am. I have not written to her since my arrival here. Love to Mamma.
Yours most lovingly,
Charlie F.

Charlie has found the Sixteenth and General Braxton Bragg has found his army. Bragg is attempting to assemble that army and protect his position. He has been maneuvered out of Tennessee and has sent the Gist Brigade to watch his flank in Rome, Georgia. All of this is prior to the battle at Chickamauga. Gist had moved to Rome about the fifth of September and Bragg will abandon Chattanooga on the 12th of September, as Charlie notes. Federal raids into Alabama attracted the attention of both Bragg and Gist, a more significant concern was where was Rosecrans and what was he doing. We cannot know what Charlie means when he says, “the news came from a cavalryman,” but Fightin Joe Wheeler is the cavalryman of the hour and place. Like D.H. Hill, it sounds like Charlie never saw spurs on a dead man, but then infantrymen tend to feel that way about people who ride to work. It is interesting to me, that Charlie is concerned with Bragg’s retreat from Tennessee, if you read his late life account you can see how men change, for he defends Lee in falling back from Sharpsburg. I tend to agree with him, Bragg was not the man for the job. Robert E. Lee was, and in that, Lee was more than most men will ever be.

Colquith – Colonel Peyton H. Colquitt – of the prominent Georgia family of that name – commander of the Forty-sixth Georgia, Gist’s Brigade. Colquitt will be killed at Chickamauga as he leads the Forty Sixth Georgia and the Eight Georgia Battalion. His death and the horrible price paid by the Gist Brigade is well described in Eugene Jones wonderful book, Enlisted for the War, The Struggles of the Gallant 24th Regiment.

Crittendon – General Thomas L. Crittenden (U.S.A.) – son of Senator J.J. Crittenden of Kentucky and younger brother of Major General George B. Crittenden (C.S.A.). Crittendon is commanding the XXI Corp under Wm. Rosecrans at the time of Charlie’s letter. Following the Union failure at Chickamauga, Rosecrans will attempt to blame Crittenden. General Crittendon’s military career will languish following these charges. He would resign in 1864 and return to the army following the war and retire as a Colonel in 1881.

Mamma – is Fannie’s mother

Kingston Ga Sept 19th ‘63

Dearest Love
We are still here have been waiting more than forty-eight hours for transportation; we expect to get off in an hour or so however. Hoods Division has all gone up towards the front. McLaw’s also for the most part. Pickett will follow I suppose. The 2nd Regt. passed without the trains stopping. I caught a glimpse of some well known faces as it passed. Some of them who were behind I have seen and spoken to, among them two of my old company. There has been some skirmishing in front. Nothing of importance has yet transpired at least so far as I can speak positivily. I have heard rumors of important moves but nothing that I can rely on as true.
There is a report that Hill or Ewell is to march upon E. Tenn, coming by way of Lynchburg, Cumberland Gap etc. I hope that a few weeks perhaps a few days will make a radical

change in the conditions of things in this part of the Confederacy. May God grant us a great victory, one that will make towards speedy peace. Give my love to Mamma. I am fondly your true love.
You will excuse brevity but I do not know how soon we may start and wish to finish this in time.

Acting as he often did, Lee released Longstreet’s Corps to Bragg in a most audacious move. The Corps moved by rail to join Bragg's Army. McLaw’s Division, which was home to Kershaw’s Brigade, and the old Second South Carolina, was a part of that move. All of Gist’s Brigade, except the Sixteenth South Carolina, had moved to the front and would be involved in the battle at Chickamauga. The Sixteenth was placed on a railroad siding, and Charlie watched as his old friends in the Second moved by, on their way to fame and in many cases death on Snodgrass Hill. They would meet the men of General George Thomas at that location. One wonders whom Charlie saw, and whom he spoke with. How did Charlie feel? What would it have been like to have made his decision to return to South Carolina, to have found a safe berth.... only to give up that berth, then to find his new regiment, finally to sit with this regiment on a siding in Georgia waiting, watching old friends pass on the way to battle... knowing later his was the only regiment in his new Brigade that would not fight. Charlie was enough of a soldier by this time to know such are the vagaries of war. Like most men he would probably have given the luck of the draw little thought, except to be grateful. If he had any thoughts or felt guilty about these issues they certainly passed by Atlanta and Franklin... and like most men, those thoughts would return less and less as the years advance... but even in death they are with you. The road less traveled, was it Robert Burns who wrote the poem? No, t'was Robert Frost! The choices we make, are the choices we live with. Charlie Furman knew all about that on a railroad siding before a place called Chickamauga.

"... somewhere ages and ages hence; two roads diverged in a wood, and I - I took the one less traveled by, and that has made all the difference." - 'The Road Not Taken' by Robert Frost

Chickamauga – The battle of Chickamauga actually started on the 18th of September, 1863. Walker’s Division, of which Gist’s Brigade was a part, was involved in that action. The movements made on the 18th will set the stage for the two days of action that followed. General Walker was actually commanding the Reserve Corps and Gist was commanding Walker’s Division. At the end of the 19th, the day of this letter, Charlie’s new friends in the Gist Brigade have engaged. On the next day, commanded by the able Clement Stevens and Ellison Capers, as well as Colonel Colquitt, the unit will be decimated, most of the leadership killed or wounded. Stevens will be wounded, Capers will be wounded, and Colquitt will be dead. When bloody Sunday, the 20th is over, the Sixteenth had not moved, they are still on the railroad siding at Kingston, Georgia. It would be several days before they moved and joined the brigade as it moved to another place that would mark these men, Missionary Ridge. They arrived at Missionary Ridge around September 23, 1863. Charlie is right, there will be a great victory. It is the last and only great victory of the Army of Tennessee. Braxton Bragg is about to allow that victory to wither and die on the vine. James Longstreet is about to prove that he is unable of independent command, and once again in history, for lack of a general, a country will die.

"Hill or Ewell" – General A.P. Hill and General Richard Ewell – Ewell is commanding Jackson’s old Corps of Lee’s Army and Hill is the commander of the third corps in the Army of Northern Virginia. D.H. Hill is at Chickamauga, and is involved in the action there, Charlie would certainly be aware of this and hoping that one of Lee’s two other corps commanders is on the way. This was not the case, although Charlie does predict the general route of Longstreet’s return to Lee and the abortive Knoxville Campaign of the following winter.

Hood's Division - John Bell Hood, The "Gallant" Hood, is at this time a Division commander in Longstreet's Corps. This incident, of seeing Hood, will stick with Charlie all of his long life and he makes mention of it in his late life account of Franklin, another place he would see John Bell Hood, up close.

Pickett's Division - General George Pickett, also a Division commander in Longstreet's Corps. He will write his name across southern history the summer following this mention.

In trenches near Atlanta
Ga. July 21 1864

Dearest Love and Wife

Yours of the 14th inst have been received. I am sorry to hear that your health is so bad. I hope Greenville air will produce a beneficial effect. How earnestly I share with you the desire that I might be with you it is needlefs to say. I hope that God may blefs us with this a consummation of this desire in many more months shall have pafsed. I had not heard of the death of Rofs Davis. I have not seen much of him for a long time but believe he was quite a promising boy. His sisters will miffs him very much poor fellow. After writing to you last I remained at our then locality until Monday when the Division moved

to the right crofsed the Railroad & remained for the night bivouacked by the road side, Tuesday moved out a mile or more in advance of breast-works & relieved Reynolds(?) Brigade- doing picket duty on Peach-Tree Creek. Our Regt and part of the 46th Ga. were placed on the outer picket. In the evening the pickets on our right & left having given way we fell back and retired from the position. Three-fourths of one company of the 46th were killed- wounded & mifsing. Our Regt lost none and slept that night on the same ground it had occupied the preceding night. Wednesday moved out on the same road a half mile or more in front of entrenchments at day break- remained for some hours, left

24th So. Car. on picket and went to our bivouac of two preceeding nights, had only been here when we had 60 rounds of cartridges & moved out to attack the enemy. Steven’s Brigade moved first, we followed. Stevens men attacked the enemy and drove (?) in his skirmishes. We were not ___ ___into action. Though somewhat expend the enemy’s fire- one man of my company was wounded in the arm the only casualty in the Regt- Genl Stevens was wounded I fear mortally. Several of our Brigade were wounded. The troops retired to breast-works an hour or two after dark. This morning moved considerably to the right, then a part of the way back again & took our present position in the

trenches. Some skirmishing in our front today- one man in Regt wounded on skirmish line, no shelling of our part of the works. I do not understand the exact military position. Des must be your informant, as to the cause of the partial attack upon the enemy yesterday it may have been to develop his strength as a part of his force was known to have moved off to the right. The army parts with Johnston, their beloved leader with great Regret. I hope that Hood may prove competent to the work afsigned him. My own health is very good & so far God has mercifully spared me from the death mifsiles of the enemy.
Give my love to all & believe me
your fondly loving Husband.

Ross Davis - three Ross Davis' appear in service from South Carolina. One of them was a Second Lieutenant in Company I of the Fifteenh South Carolina, Kershaw's Brigade. He was killed in action 7/13/64 at Petersburg, Virginia.

"The Division" - W.H.T. Walker's Division of the Army of Tennessee.

Reynolds Brigade - Alexander W. Reynolds and Daniel Harris Reynolds both commanded Brigades during the Hundreds Days of Atlanta. General A.W. Reynolds was wounded at New Hope Church or Dallas. D.H. Reynolds was still in action at the the time of this writing. D.H. Reynolds was in command of his Arkansas Brigade that was serving with Walthall's Division which was a part of at the time of Peachtree Creek. A.W. Reynolds Brigade was part of Stevenson's Division which was a part of the Corps that had been commanded by Hood. Stephen D. Lee will eventually take this command.

Forty-Sixth Georgia - a sister unit in the Gist Brigade.

"Stevens" - General Clement Hoffman Stevens, former commander of the 24th South Carolina and first commander of the Gist Brigade. Stevens was called "Rock" by his men. Stevens was a a brigade commander in General W.H.T. Walker's Division and was fatally wounded in the Battle of Peachtree Creek. He is buried in Pendleton, South Carolina and was the brother of the commander of the Holcombe Legion.

Des - Henry DeSaussure Garden, who served on the Brigade Staff of General Gist, the brother of Fannie Garden and Captain Hugh Garden of Garden's Battery.

Johnston - The beloved General Joseph E. Johnston has been removed from command and replaced.

Hood - John B. Hood, the man who replaced Johnston, Peachtree Creek is his first action as commander of the Army of Tennessee.

The Events:

"Walker's division, on Bate's left, because of a bulge in the Federal line, made contact with the enemy before Bate, and the classic movement en echelon began to fall apart before it even started. After driving some distance, Walker's Division was repulsed, and Brigadier General Clement H. Stevens was killed while leading his brigade. When Walker was repulsed, Maney's Division hesitated on his left and the next division in line (Loring's) moved out ahead of Maney - disrupting even more the text book, en echelon movement."

The Campaign for Atlanta, William R. Scaife.

In tenches near Atlanta Ga.
Aug 8 1864

My dear dear Wife

I have not had a letter from you bearing later date than the 22 ult. and do not know whether you are in Sumter or two hundred miles further north. The cutting of the Augusta & Macon Railroad has perhaps deranged the mails and perhaps accounts for my failure to hear from you. I hope that your silence is not necefsitated by sicknefs. I do so much wish to be with you as I am fearful that continued anxiety may affect your health. I will try to be more regular in future, in writing to you, but I fear that the mails will thwart my intentions in this respect & by losing some and carrying others two or three together will prevent you hearing from me as often as I would wish. Yesterday- Sunday- was a day of unusual quiet along the lines, at least in our immediate vicinity. I think that there was not a cannon fired near us on that entire day & not one has been discharged this morning in our front. Whether this unaccustomed quiet indicates any prospective storm I am unable to say; besides you will hear of it if such should be the case, before this reaches you, unlefs it travels faster than your letters sometimes do. I see by the last paper that has come under my eye accounts from Mobile that make me somewhat anxious for the fate of that city. The demonstration is it may be unexpected on our part. I do not how this is. There has just been a change made there in the afsignment of Genl Higgins to succeed Genl Manry(?)-the latter having been made a Lieut Genl and put in command of the Dept. Genl Lee being relieved from duty there in order to take command of Hoods Corps.

I see that Genl Hooker died from wounds received at Kennesaw Mountain. He was regarded as an able officer by the enemy in spite of his failure when in command of the Army of the Potomac. I am getting so tired of this war. The price of liberty is very dear. We have need of patience. It will be a blefsing though if we use this time of national affliction aright. And is it not a time specially suited- if one time can be said to be more fit than another- to seeking to find the blescedness of personal religion by our own experience of its effects. We have so little to ___ us in the surrounding circumstances. The future is in a worldly view such a dreadful blank. How terrible war rages around us, none can tell when it will end. Every day some are dying around us. Any of us may die tomorrow, today. The ordinary pleasures of life—afsociation with those we love, the employment of our powers of mind and body in chosen avocations, are absent from us. Why then should we not all seek to find our way and consolation in Him who is mighty- to save and who can render us resigned under the most trying circumstances of life- and who can render death itself a relief, a joy. Oh! That I could realize these things fully. May God grant to us a blefsing- may He render us happy in the knowledge of his pardoning love, graciously best owed through the merits and the suffering of Him who gave up his life for men, while yet sinners. Give my love to all. I suppose your brother is well. I have not seen him for some days.

I am your most fond Husband.

Mail was disrupted by the cutting of the Augusta Macon Railroad and the uncertainity of the mail during this time is an often mentioned topic in many letters.

Mobile - Mobile, Alabama

General Higgins - a native of Virginia, serving from Louisiana. He had extended service at sea prior to the war. Twice captured, General Dabney H. Maury requested his service in the defense of Mobile.

Genral Maury - a native of Virginia, Maury served as commander at Mobile, following his service at Vicksburg. He was in command of the city which he defended at the close of the war. He was the founder of the Southern historical Society following the war.

Hooker - General Joe Hooker of the Union Army. Hooker lived until 1879. He resigned from command about the time of the Battle of Peachtree Creek and does not appear to have been wounded at Kennesaw Mountain.

Bivouac near Jonesboro

Sept 9th 1864

It is a long time my dear Fannie since I have written to you. My last letter being dated about the 27th ultimo, two weeks ago; but the mails are so uncertain that I do not know that it is even of any use to write now. I have had but two letters from you written in August one of the 9th and one of later date. The supposed retreat of the enemy was a sad mistake. I do not know but that Genl Hood was deceived as well as the large number of lefser personages. On the afternoon of the 30th we moved down the road halted for a while during the night and again after the night was nearly or quite spent, then pushed on and the following day found us at Jonesboro. Here after some hours delay an attack was made by Hardee’s & Lee’s Corps upon the enemy but we failed to dislodge him from his entrenchments. The attack was not an evidence of our full strength. Our Brigade which was not in the first line did not afsault the works, this was perhaps well for I doubt whether we would have been successful and the army might have been crippled and demoralized by a heavy repulse. I do not know what lofs we sustained this day. I hope not more than a few hundreds. That night we retired and went to fortifying, our Division was on the extreme left. Lee’s Corps went up the road

towards Atlanta-leaving Hardee’s Corps alone separated from the army. Our Division was moved from its position and moved to the right and centre. The enemy drove back our cavalry and got pofsefsion of the road within a mile of the right of our Infantry line I think as I was informed. Our Brigade was hastily thrown into position and threw up temporary defences of rails and old logs; we soon needed them. The enemy-it maybe hoped to overwhelm us by the suddennefs and force of his attack: our line was so far as I know throughout its length in single rank. I heard that a portion of it was even weaker, the men being deployed with intervals between them against this line. Sherman brought a heavy force-perhaps as many as six “corps d’armie’ ” were arrayed against our single one; the afsault was I believe chiefly confined to that portion of the line manned by Gowans Brigade of French's Division, Lewis’ Brigade of Bates Division & a part of Gist’s Brigade of the 2nd Ga. Batt. S.‘shooters & the three(?) left companies of the 24th So Car. I can not vouch for the accuratinefs in every particular of what I write but I will give you what may be very nearly as truthful an account as you can receive. Lewis’ Brigade, Gowans & the extreme left of ours gave way. Genl Gowan was captured with a number of his men-Vaughan & perhaps Strahl came up in support, and the lines were partially retaken. Our Brigade retook their line without afsistance. In front

of the left of the 16th the undergrowth of trees prevented our seeing the enemy. I did not see a Yankee during the fight. The lofs in our Regt was slight, I did not have a man hurt and indeed very few of the Brigade were killed & wounded. The following night we fell back to Lovejoy Station and fortified. The enemy came down upon us and our Regt lost 17 men in a skirmish on the picket line we had something over a hundred engaged. Out of 17 men I lost three one(was) killed one wounded 4 one mifsing. Lt Alexander was killed in this affair. I was not with my company as I was acting as Major at the time. The line here was a very disastrous one for my company. On Saturday I had one of my best soldiers as I feared mortally wounded while at work on the ditches and another mortally wounded while sleeping in rear of the lines. One shell wounded eight or ten men in Vaughan’s Brigade-and another precipitated a piece of timber upon the men injuring seven of our Brigade-we had another Lieut & several more men hurt while the Regt remained here. On Sunday we changed places on the line with F____(?). At the new place I had one man hurt by a shell. Here we remained during Monday on that night the enemy withdrew his pickets & on Tuesday we left the ditches and moved forward some miles; on Wednesday moved up our pickets to the battleground of the 1st Sept & on yesterday took up our present camp. Here we hope

to remain in quiet as the enemy is believed to have gone back for the purpose of resting his troops. Well Fan I am very much afraid that all our toils and dangers have been in vain and that the days of the young Republic are almost numbered, I do not know that there are any reinforcements that can be sent to us and as the enemy have driven us by superior numbers- which enable him to threaten or get our communications and thus force us to fall back- from Dalton to Jonesboro so he can, I fear, drive us from Jonesboro to Macon which so far as I can see may be accomplished ere the campaign closes; as to his supplies I think he may now make there men scarce and depart for Macon in two weeks, perhaps more confident than when he left Ringgold. If we could have held Atlanta we might have hoped that the peace party would have triumphed in the coming election but now- how will it be? I am still hopeful- but I fear that our Southern Confederacy will soon cease to exist or exist only as the ____Republic does in Mexico- How sad that such should be the case after so many years of slaughter & suffering, but we deserve nothing better, our wickednefs is great. Perhaps He is only casting us down; that he may lift us up when we acknowledge our sinfulnefs and cry to him for mercy- People remark my good Health. I do not know that I ever had a larger measure of it on any campaign. Give my love to all the family Fan, dear sweet wife.

Your fondly loving Husband

Hood – John Bell Hood – doomed commander of the Army of Tennessee, completely fooled by Sherman’s moves, he nearly lost his army in the fighting prior to and during the Battle of Jonesboro.

Hardee’s Corps – was a staple of the Army of Tennessee. Offered command of the Army of Tennessee, he did not accept. He resigned from his command because of his lack of faith in General John Bell Hood, following this battle, the battle at Jonesboro. He was replaced by Benjamin Cheatham.

Lee’s Corps – Stephen D. Lee’s Corps, Hood’s Corps prior to his promotion.

Our Brigade – Gist’s Brigade

Govan’s Brigade – Daniel C. Govan’s Brigade

Lewis Brigade – J.H. Lewis – commander of the Orphan or Kentucky Brigade during the battle of Atlanta. Shortly after the fall of Atlanta the brigade was mounted and moved to the command of General J. Wheeler.

French's Division - Major General Samuel G. French - a part of Polk's Corps - French was from New Jersey, a West Point graduate and would serve with Hood's Army until just before the Battle of Nashville. He would also serve in Mobile until his surrender.

Bates Division – General Wm. B. Bate commanded a division in the Army of Tennessee

Second Georgia Sharpshooters – another unit in Gist’s Brigade – was heavily involved with the “pocket knife” defense on the second day at Jonesboro.

24th South Carolina – the sister regiment of the 16th South Carolina.

General Govan – Daniel C. Govan – A brigade commander in the western army. General Govan was captured in the battle of Jonesboro during the Atlanta Campaign.

General Strahl – General Otho French Strahl – during the Atlanta Campaign, Strahl will serve as a Brigade commander under Cheatham in Hardee’s Corps. Strahl will be killed at Franklin, late in the evening, fighting on the breastworks.

Lt. Alexander – Lt. W.J. Alexander of Company K, Sixteenth South Carolina – Alexander had brothers serving in Company B, the company he was promoted from. The experiences of his brother in prison are recorded in the Stories Section on these pages.

Peace Party – Little Mac’s is now running against Lincoln who will win. Many think the fall of Atlanta gave him the edge needed to win the election of 1864

The following are listed as having been killed, wounded, or captured at Jonesboro from the Sixteenth:

Company A
R.E. Bramlett (WD)
W.M Bramlett (WD)
W.M. Howell (DOW?)
Joshua League (KIA, Listed also in B Company)

Company B
Captain R.H. Alexander (WD)
Thomas Howard (WD)
Jas. Johnson (WD)

Company C
Ervin Batson (WD)
James Hawkins (KIA)

Company E
J.M. Smith (WD)
James Chapman (WD)
Samuel Vance (CAP)

Company F
J.E. Sandlin (WD)

Company G
Lt. Elliott Batson (CAP and EX.)

Company H
First Sergeant E.F. Reynolds (CAP and EX)
Sergeant M.K. Robertson (CAP and EX)

Company K
Lt. W.J. Alexander (KIA, Listed as Lovejoy)
W. Smith Batson (WD, CAP and Ex)
W.D. Hutching (CAP and EX)
A.B. Satterfield (CAP)
Jan? J.B. Tompkins (KIA)

The Events

“General Hood was deceived” – John Bell Hood – “Deadly time in the siege lines around Atlanta proper follows, and then suddenly Sherman and his army vanish. Sherman has completely foxed Hood and the race to Jonesboro begins. Hood places his army in the most dangerous position of the entire campaign at Jonesboro. Only fools luck and Ellison Capers and his men save at least a part of the army from complete disaster. It is certainly Capers finest hour and is one of the best fights in the entire Gist Brigade history.”

See the Articles on
The Hundred Days of Atlanta
Capers' Report on Jonesboro

The Palmetto Light Artillery Battalion Letters

Charlie Furman served first with Company B of the Second South Carolina in Virginia. He then moved to the P.B.L.A, Company A and finally to the Sixteenth South Carolina, Company H. These letters are from his service with the P.B.L.A.

Camp Allen Feb 10 1863

My dearly loved and wished for Fan. Yesterday in company with my brother and several of the serjents of the battery I rode down to Red Bluff to take a look at the fortifications at that point and on the route between the Bluff and our position. There are two forts at the Bluff, but they are not of a formidable character; and I think it not unlikely that they will be abandoned; since I understand that Major Barnwell, who is down here inspecting defences, will report against mounting guns upon them. Some four miles on this side of the Bluff, and just at the junction of the Serevins Ferry, with the main road, is a small field work where our guns are to be placed should the enemy advance by this route. I am not altogether pleased with the location of this work and even its construction is in my opinion faulty. I understand that it is Beauregard’s opinion that the enemy in the event of an attack, will land at Red Bluff and advancing up the North bank of the Savannah River will construct siege batteries opposite the city and so attempt its ______after cutting off communication by seizing the

Railroad at some point between Charleston & Savannah. In case Charleston should be attacked of course a different plan would be pursued. The last indication would seem to render it more probable than it has heretofore been considered, that the first attack will be made against Charleston. If that should be the case our battery will probably not be engaged unless they attempt to cut the RR at Hardeeville. Should they however attack Savannah we would be most probably hotly engaged. A lady prisoner from Port Royal reports one hundred and thirty vessels there. She says that Hunter and Foster had quarreled and that the latter had in consequence sailed for New York. A Yankee recently captured says that they have received thirty Regts of new troops. Putting this force at 15000 and adding 8000 which they are supposed to have had previously, we have a force of 23000 men to contend with exclusive of their fleet. I hope we will kill about half this number and drown the remainder. Some think a fight will come off in ten days, but I think everything said on this subject is uslefs speculation. Give my love to Mamma and get well quickly like a good girl.
Ever Yours,

John G. Barnwell (CSA) – Major – Ordinance Officer – Inspector General – Serving on the staff of General James H. Trapier – Later became Inspector General on the staff of General W.N. Pendleton, Army of Northern Virginia. Trapier was a West Point Graduate who had served in Florida and under General Bragg with little success. He was a native of Georgetown. There is a Captain Barnwell who served on the staff of General W.S. Walker but this is clearly Major Barnwell.

Hunter – General David Hunter (USA) - West Point Graduate – One of many totally incompetent and corrupt Union Generals. He engaged and lost the Battle of Secessionville by circumventing the orders of his superior. He lost the Shenandoah Valley to Jube Early who promptly moved against Washington and finally presided at the trial of the Lincoln conspirators seeing that all mitigating testimony was excluded. This resulted in the hanging of Mary Surratt whose involvement in the plot was at best doubtful.

Beauregard - P.G.T. Beauregard (CSA) – West Point Class of 1838 – Commanded the defense of Charleston and the coast of South Carolina in 1863 and 1864.

Foster – General John Gray Foster (USA)- Briefly, January and Febuary of 1863, Foster commanded XVIII Corps at St. Helena in the Department of the South. Foster was a Mexican War Vet and 1846 graduate of West Point. He also served with Anderson at Ft. Sumter.

Camp Allen -

Charleston and Savannah Railroad – a vital railroad connection that was often threaten by the Union forces on the coast of South Carolina. The railroad ran north from Savannah following roughly the path to Hardeeville, Coosawhatchie, Pocotaligo, Green Pond, Parker's Ferry and into Charleston.

Hardeeville - located in Jasper County this was the first town across the Savannah River.

Port Royal – located on the coast of South Carolina, Port Royal, and Beaufort, were both occupied by Union Forces. The Union also occupied Edisto Island, Folly Island and Morris Island. Using the rivers as highways, Union forces often used shallow draft boats like the Planter to raid far inland. Movement and fighting took place on both Johns Island and James Island as well.

Red Bluff –

Serevins Ferry –

Camp Allen
Feb 28 1863

My own Fan, my precious darling, how I wish I could substitute myself for this letter, and in two short days prefs my beautiful in my arms. But since this cannot be I must content myself with writing dull words. Today there was considerable firing supposed to proceed from Genesis Point. It ceased however before mid day, so I suppose it was nothing of any special importance. I hear that five men of this Regt, who were scouting on Spring Is. are supposed to have been taken. Magee the scout who was recently commended by Walker & Beauregard, is mifsing too. Lieut Kirby of this Battery has just returned from making soundings in Morgans(?) and Tunbridges Creek & in Wright(?) River. Just as I write I hear a renewal of the firing. This firing on Ft McAllister probably indicates an attack on Savannah; but it may be that it is only a feint—to cover a real demonstration against Charleston. Time proves all things. The Federal Fleet is said to have been recently increased by the arrival of fifty sail. I heard yesterday through a private source that a large part of Lee’s Army had moved back from F(?)

& was now located on the south side of the James. This movement was made, at least so I understood, in consequence of the transfer of a large part of the Yankee army from the Rappahannock to that locality. If this change has really taken place in the position of the Yankee army under Gen Hooker, it is decidedly to their advantage, in one aspect at all events --They now, it would appear; threaten us at Richmond, Wilmington, Charleston & Savannah, and at every point intervening. We may thus be prevented from providing such a front as we might do, were one point above menaced. I see that some of the Yankees at least, already look upon the taking of Charleston as no light job. This is remarkable; they are usually good hands at discovering causes of failure, it is true, but these discoveries are usually made after defeat & thence have proved uselefs, except as moral lefsons. But darknefs approaches; tell Mamma that I have been long looking for that letter which she was about to write me some time ago.
My love to her, and now my darling love farewell,
Yours only & devotedly

Lt. Kirby – S.S. Kirby Sr. - Second Lt., Company A, Palmetto Light Artillery Battalion

Magee – an unknown scout

Walker – William Stephen Walker (CSA), a native of Pennsylvania who served with the south. Walker had served in the Mexican War and held a number of positions in South Carolina, including the command of several districts of the Department of South Carolina.

Beauregard – P.G.T. Beauregard (CSA) – West Point Class of 1838 – Commanded the defense of Charleston and the coast of South Carolina in 1863 and 1864.

Gen. Hooker - Fighting Joe Hooker (USA) - graduated from West Point in the Class of 1837, he was the victim of Lee's greatest victory, Chancellorsville. Hooker was, however, a good officer when placed in a subordinate role.

Spring Island –

Genesis Point –


Tunbridges Creek –

Wright River –

Ft. McAllister – located south of Savannah opposite the Ossasaw Sound below Savannah River and the Macon and Atlanta Railroad Line. See Map Page 24, The Defense of Charleston Harbor, Johnson.

(F)? – Fredericksburg, Virginia

James – James River in Virginia

Hd Qrs Camp Allen
March 3, 1863

I ought to have written yesterday dearest, but the day slipped by without my doing so. It was quite a stirring day too, love. We received several communications from District Head Quarters, which showed that old Walker, Brig Gen Comd(?) thought that we might have a showing. We heard too that the fleet— or a portion of it—had sailed from Hilton Head; and were at a lofs when it would turn up. Todays experience has settled that question however. All day long the enemy have been hammering at Ft McAllister(alias Genesis Point) with what effect we know not. It was reported indeed that the Point had fallen but this is most unprobable, from causes it is uselefs to specify at this time. The attacking fleet at the Ft. is said to consist of three(?) iron clads and some dozen other vessels; pretty heavy on one clay bank—I hope she may be as succefsful as in past experiences. It is not unlikely that the fighting has fairly commenced—whether we will have a part to perform is hard

to say yet; they may attempt to cut the RR Trestle over the Savannah River, if so we will be into it. They will not be likely to come by this route for any other purpose. I will write frequently, darling, until the fighting is over; should this prove the beginning of a siege and should it not be out of my power. Do not be alarmed Fan dear, on my account, as I said before we may not be engaged atall. I do not know whether tis necefsary for me to write of the progrefs of the fighting, if fighting there should be, for it takes two days for you to get tidings by mail, and hence you know all before my letter can reach you, sweet. Fortifications are about to be thrown up at the Trestle and should the enemy force our retiring from these lines, we fall back upon them. And now dearest, sweetest, loveliest lady farewell. Again. I tell you, you must not be alarmed. Love to Mamma, ever the fondest though unworthiest of lovers I remain, Fan beauty, yours and yours alone.
Charlie M. Furman Mifs Frances Emma Garden

Walker – William Stephen Walker (CSA), a native of Pennsylvania who served with the south. Walker had served in the Mexican War and held a number of positions in South Carolina, including the command of several districts of the Department of South Carolina.

Beauregard – P.G.T. Beauregard (CSA) – West Point Class of 1838 – Commanded the defense of Charleston and the coast of South Carolina in 1863 and 1864.

Camp Allen April 12th 1863

It is late almost dark, and yet I must not let the day pass without a word or two to darling mine. Good news from Hardeeville. Report says that the Iron sides is “hon de combat”. One account is, that she has sunk another that she is throwing her guns over board, either is good. She makes the fourth of the “immortal nine”; who received a dose in the recent “feeler”, as some of the timorous will be disposed to regard the recent attack upon Charleston. That game is played out. I have no fears atall for the safety of the old city. The boat sunk by the Lt.(light) Batterys from Pocotaligo has been despoiled of one of her guns by the exertions of Capt Ste Elliot and there is reason to believe that the others will be recovered from the devouring waters. So far good, and every reason to hope for the future. The prospects on all sides are bright now. Not for a very speedy close of the war but for a succefsful repulse of the enemy at all points which must bring peace by and by. 13th. I did not finish this document last evening, it becoming too dark to see. As I was saying the prospect is good. The enemy beaten back from Port Hudson from Fort Pemberton , the ____Pass Expidition a failure, the Canal ditto. Farraguts fleet seriously crippled; Kirby Smith and Price in the ____ depict their discomfiture here; the firm front presented in Virginia and I hope (though I fear it is our weak point) in Tennefsee. the offinsive movements of Hill in North Carolina, the Naval disasters with which the Yankees are every-where meeting, the efficiency of Cotton-Clads in their warfare upon iron-clads, , the non invulnerability of the latter, the depredations of our ever- increasing fleet of privateers, all these things gives reason to hope well of the future. The Confed & State rulers too seem to be every whit in earnest about the raising of food crops-- the only matter which is calculated to cause any alarm at this juncture. And now Beauty farewell; how I want to kiss those shining lips, that is one great advantage in being with ones sweet heart. Even parting is pleasant. Think of that one about three months ago and that about twenty-four-- But kifsing a representation on glafs is very unsatisfactory don’t you think so, eh love. (for I have no doubt you have noticed the difference and are prepared to pronounce upon it). You darling darling creature. My own little Fan. How distinctly I see you now, your darling little form resting in my arms. Your head thrown back, your auburn locks—a mafs of beauty thrown into confusion by the rough-tender usage through which they have passed, the lips saying “you shant have any more kisses(the old story they have so often told), the whole face covered with soft looks, the tender warmth and beaming gentlenefs in the eyes which say I love him. Oh! I love him. And then if he says something that brings the rose out upon her fresh cheeks(which none but his lips have ever prefsed) her face is by a quick movement buried in his bosom and she clings & is clasped close close to that heart which is all the world to her and to which she is all the world. If you don’t like this part of my letter you may quit reading near the bottom of the second page and omit all of this writing acrofs.
Love to Mother. Yours only my belle Fan
Charles M. Furman

Charlie waxes a bit Victorian and poetic in this letter. Still in our world it is refreshing to see a bit of this romantic time. Charlie and Fan also have a nasty little habit of writing across the page over what has already been written. A challenge then as it remains today.

Hardeeville – small town at the extreme tip of South Carolina, located in Jasper County it would be near where Charlie is stationed.

On April 7, 1863, Admiral Du Pont made an unsuccessful attempt to force the entrance of Charleston Harbor with eight monitors and one iron clad He was unable to pass the floating obstruction in the rear of Fort Sumter, and his ships could not silence the batteries at either Sumter or those located on Sullivan's Island. In January, February, and March four trial assaults were made on Fort McAllister, located near the mouth of the Great Ogeehee River on the adjacent coast of Georgia. (This is near Charlie Furman's position, see earlier letters.) The Passic, Patapaco, and Nahaut monitors were all involved. For the assault on Fort Sumter the Montauk, Weehawken, Nantucket, and Catskill were added, along with the Keokuk and iron-clad frigate the New Ironsides. The ships came together on April second and the assault against Sumter began on April 7, 1863. (For a full and complete look at the battle from the Confederate point of view see Johnson, The Defense of Charleston Harbor, Chapter II, The Repulse of the Iron-Clad Squadron, April 7, 1863.)

Old Ironsides – New Ironsides, see above

The immortal nine – the nine monitors and ironclad ships involved in the bombardment of Sumter. They will be turned away.

Stephen Elliott – Captain Elliott – Captain Stephen Elliott – 1830-1866 – The son of a distinguished Episcopal Bishop, Elliott took the Beaufort Light Artillery to war. Stephen Elliott rose from Captain to Colonel based entirely on his service within the State of South Carolina. He commanded General Shank Evans' old brigade after W.S. Walker later in the war. He was seriously wounded at the Crater and returned to South Carolina and died following the war. On the morning of April 9, 1863 Captain Stephen Elliott engaged the Union steamer Washington on the Coosaw River. It was one of a number of actions that the Beaufort Light Artillery was engaged in during this time. However it was by far the most serious. See the Mckittrick Letters for another account of this event, Mckittrick was with Company B of the First Battalion South Carolina Sharpshooters and was supporting Elliott during a part of this action.

Port Hudson – On March 14, 1863, Admiral David Farragut bombed Port Hudson during his passage up river toward Vicksburg. Port Hudson would surrender on July 9, 1863, shortly after Vicksburg.

Fort Pemberton – Part of the Vicksburg defenses named for the General in charge of the defense of Vicksburg.

____Pass Expidition - Sabine Pass Expedition - On January 21, 1863, two Confederate cotton-clad steamers attacked the blockading force composed of the Morning Star and the Velocity. The Federal ships were captured with a loss of 13 guns, 109 prisoners and 1 million dollars worth of property. Bank's would later mount the Union expediton against the Sabine Pass in September and it would be unsucccessful.

Farragut – Admiral of the United States Navy – famous for his actions on the Mississippi River. He entered the U.S.N. in 1820 after having been virtually adopted by Commodore David Porter

Kirby Smith – General Kirby Smith (CSA) – fighting in the Trans - Mississippi, Edmund Kirby Smith, Graduated from West Point in 1845. Breveted in the Mexican War. Prior to his resignation to serve the south he refused to surrender his command to Ben McCullouch in Texas. He became a General and was virtually the last confederate of his rank in the field at the end of the war. He was the last survivor of the full generals of the Confederacy

Price - General Sterling Price (CSA) – also fighting in the Trans - Mississippi. Price served in the Mexican War. He was a Major General, he served all of his Confederate career in the West and is buried in St. Louis where he died after the war.

Cotton-Clads – Ships that used bales of cotton attached to the superstructure to protect them from hostile fire. Another innovation of a war pressed south.

The Palmetto Light Artillery Battalion Letters, Continued

Camp Allen 20th Apl 1863

My fair faced Fan Tis Early in the morning love, you are still snoozing I expect while I write. The sun has only just left the horizon and the birds are singing gaily in the trees. This must be very near the anniversary of our first & only horse-back ride. Do you remember the day love—I believe you loved me then little lady, but you did not think it prudent to let it appear. Your sex is deceitful any how you know.

The weather is becoming disagreeable. Yesterday & the day before were quite warm making exercise in the sun by no means pleasant. The sand flies have been paying their respects for some time and the mosquitoes have now made their appearance. Earle is trying to get permifsion to move his battery to Bluffton. I don’t know yet whether he will succeed. I received a letter from Senator Orr a few days since in regard to the appointment I spoke of. He informed me that the bill pafsed over the Presidents veto in the Senate, but failed in the house. So that scheme is a failure. I see the marriage of an old comrade in arms, announced in the Mercury , that of Theodore G. Gaillard to Mifs Huger. I don’t see what on earth she married him for, he is rather

stupid and one of the most singularly ugly men I ever saw, in fine(fact?) he was about as unlovable a piece of humanity as one often sees—but “chacun a son gouh” if she likes him I have no objections. I have recently got hold of another of Thackerays works, vis “Lovel the Widower”. I have looked into the tale before, having seen some number of it, when it appeared in a serial form in the “Corn Hill Mag”—Thackeray’s periodical. Nothing is doing here and to show the sense of security I would mention the fact that several furloughs have recently been granted. I may get a furlough this summer but I am very much dissatisfied at the prospect; except in cases of sicknefs. These leaves of absince are usually confined to ten days. It takes four days to go home & return. This leaves me but six days to spend at home. Really that is too short. If I can have a slight attack of fever I will probably get off for a month or more, but other wise the prospect is gloomy. You must certainly come home by Savannah. I can easily get leave of absence for a day and meet you there. Love to Mamma and any quantity of the same to yourself, fondly your lover,
Charlie M. Furman JR.

Earle – William E. Earle, Captain and commander of Company A of the Palmetto Battalion of Light Artillery, this unit should not be confused with Captain Hugh Garden’s Battery listed below.

Bluffton – a small town in Jasper County that was a point of defense from the raids of the Union forces located on the coast.

Senator Orr - founder of Orr’s Rifles, brother of Jehu A. Orr, born in Craytonville in Anderson County, Orr served after Benjamin Perry following the war as South Carolina’s Governor. He was deeply involved in redemption under Hampton. He was a moderate on the issue of secession prior to the war, although he signed the Ordinance of secession. He was elected to the Provisional Confederate Congress. He served in the Confederate Senate as chairmen of the Foreign Affairs and rules committees. He fought conscription and habeas corpus suspension and he opposed Braxton Bragg and Northrop. He supported Andrew Johnson but returned to the fold when the radicals took control of government. (Warner, Biographical Register of the Confederate Congress, page 189)

Theodore G. Galliard – A private in Company I of the Second South Carolina. He was from Pineville South Carolina and served later in the Second S.C. Cavalry

Ms. Huger – appears to be the lucky wife of Private Galliard.

Cherry Dale June 8th 1863

Dearest Fan
I wrote to you a few days since but fear the letter did not reach___. I hope Allie is better now—I got your note announcing your arrival in Lexington—I expect to leave Greenville for your arms, on Thursday next the 11th Inst. You must excuse my irregularity in writing for two weeks past, my time has been a good deal occupied,and nothing has occurred which would interest you particularly. I don’t know how I am to manage it. I leave only ten days to spend in Sumter and Statesburgh and I feel as though I can not spare any of that time out of your sight. In haste I remain, with love to Mamma.
Yours fondly, Charlie

Cherry Dale – home of the Furmans recently moved to the Furman University Campus.

Allie -

Bluffton July 25th 1863

Dearest Love,
Yours of the 21st inst was handed me last night. I would like to see your letter from Hugh very much indeed. When every-one in Sumter has read it please send it or at least tell me what he says about the battle. I have received no news of a private nature from Va. since it occurred. My old friend & correspondent from whom I would look for information having been as I see by the paper severely wounded, he is probably in the hands of the enemy, if still alive. So inclined to criticize are we; so prone to set up our opinions as

standards of judgement that I find it difficult to restrain a half-felt censure of our gallant General. He gained nothing perhaps by this bloody battle; but then perhaps a great advantage was pofsible, and this it may be was lost through no fault of his. What do you think of the great mobs in N.Y. Do you flatter yourself that they will help our cause atall. If so I advise you no longer to cherish what may prove a delusion. The Western papers seem disposed to keep up the the Western reputation for braggadocio. I see that one of them exprefses confidence that the Yankees will not advance acrofs the Pearl River

as they will know that they will receive a “drubbing” or something to that effect, if I read aright. The same paper had an extract from another Journal stating that Johnston had fallen back being unable to hold his ground at Meridian. Things seem to be at a stand still about Charleston. I wish we could concentrate troops enough to drive the enemy from Morris Is. I don’t suppose it is the want of troops however that prevents it. If the Island should be cleaned of every Yankee, the Yankee fleet could prevent probably the erection of batteries upon the lower end of it, and without such batteries they might at any time land

more troops. That Gen Beaurgard has no need of troops I am well satisfied. Some five companies of the 11th Regt recently ordered to C. having been sent back to Pocotaligo. Dear Fan you do not say anything of your religious feelings in your last letter. Let me urge again upon you the importance of this matter. Never suffer yourself to rest contented-until you have no longer any doubt as to your change of heart. Any other peace than that coming from a confidence in ones acceptance into Jesus’ fold is not to be desired, but above all to be shunned & avoided. With respects to your friends & love to Mamma,
I remain fondly your truly loving
Charlie F.

Hugh–Captain Hugh Garden, Fannie’s brother, commander of Garden’s Battery or the Palmetto Light Artillery. The Battery was at Gettysburg and I suspect that is the news Charlie is so interested in.

old friend & correspondent – again it is difficult to tell who Charlie means, but probably a member of Company I, Second South Carolina, Kershaw’s Brigade. The Second took over 50 percent casualties at Gettysburg.

Our gallant General – it is difficult to tell if Charlie means Lee, but he probably does.

Great mobs in New York City – Charlie is correct, the New York City draft riots will have little impact on the political situation. The actions of the largely Irish mob result in little more than the tragic loss of life in the black community. These riots were brought on by The Enrollment Act of March 3, 1863. The riots lasted from July 13th to the 16th of 1863. The rioters burned a Negro Church and orphanage, attacked the New York Tribune, and wrecked the home of the Provost Marshal, killing more than a dozen people. Federal Troops from the Army of the Potomac responded killing and wounding over a 1,000 people to end the uprising. There were also riots in Boston, Vermont, New Hampshire and Ohio but none approached the scale of the New York Riots.

Pearl River –

Johnson has fallen back – Johnson’s effort to relieve Vicksburg had not only come to naught, but Vicksburg has fallen, although it appears that Charlie does not yet know of the black day of the Confederacy. Lee has been turned back at Gettysburg and Morgan’s raid into Ohio is failing. Although nobody could yet be aware, the confederacy has gone up the spout.

Morris Island – the island in Charleston Harbor – the only good news for the confederacy is that Battery Wagner has held against the Union assault led by General George Strong

General Beauregard – General P.G.T. Beauregard, commander of the defense of Charleston Harbor, Beauregard was notorious for the “sandbagging” troops. In 1864, his sins will find him out and he will loose most of his manpower to active theatres, including the Eleventh South Carolina Volunteers, which will go to Virginia with Johnson Hagood’s South Carolina Brigade.

Pocotaligo – a frequently threatened junction on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, elements of the 11th were engaged in the small skirmish there in 1862.

The early war letters of Charles Furman

Charles Furman, you will recall, first enlisted in Company I of the Second South Carolina Infantry as a private. Company I, known as the Palmetto Guard was an elite unit made up of the sons of the finest families of South Carolina. Charlie Furman was certainly that. At the time Charlie is calling on Fannie Garden and they will be married. Max Wyckoff in the leading study on the Second South Carolina says the following about the Palmetto Guard. “Company I was an elite organization that dated back to the Mexican War. Its men were mostly from Charleston, Beaufort and the surrounding low country districts." The unit was present at First Manassas in July.

Camp Camden Dec. 14 (ca. 1861)

Ever dear Fannie
My having been a little unwell for a few days must be my excuse for not having written for some days past. I am well again however and was not by any means very sick at any time. I have had the pleasure of receiving several documents from my darling since my last writing. I am truly glad to hear that you are pafsing a pleasant time. After having a week of delightful weather in which fires were scarcely needed, we again have a recurrence of wintry cold. The nights especially are bitterly cold, though we have as yet only experienced the beginnings. After all the reports current a few weeks ago, we seem as far as ever from a fight. I sease to put any confidence in reports for the future, no matter

what their source may be. I had scarce the shadow of a doubt that long ere this, we would have been face to face with the enemy. It may be that the warm spell of weather which we have just experienced by thawing (and thus rendering unfit for travel) the roads has prevented the coming of MC(?) and that the return of cool weather will bring him down soon.
I have just heard of the terrific fire which was at last accounts desolating Charleston. This is indeed a terrible blow to us, the course of the fire has been through the heart of the city. I presume we owe the disaster to Yankee sympathizers in our midst. I cannot but wish that I may one day see Washington and Philadelphia retributively laid in ashes. The extent of the fire is yet unknown to us and I hope that it has been exaggerated. We hear that the Charleston Hotel, the Mills House, The Circular Church

Cathedral, St. Andrews & the Institute Halls are among the buildings destroyed. Two members of our company left camp this morning on sick furlough. One of them was a tent-mate of mine. Two of my tent-mates have been discharged on account of sicknefs so that there is but one left of the original four.
There has been a proposition made to the 12 months volunteers by which they have a two months furlough offered them on condition of their revolunteering for two years. I don’t know how this proposition will be received; but as long as there is a pofsibility of enlisting for a lefs time than two years. I will be very cautious how I make any arrangements of the kind with the Confederate Gov-- If there is no fighting in Carolina next year I think I will go to Mo(?) for I am tired of Virginia. And moreover I wish always to have the power of returning to my own state and in every way to look forward to a two years exile would be disheartening, would it not? I am sorry for the long hiatus that has occurred between the writing of the last letter dispatched to Mifs Fan and the one now in procefs of formation. It is the first time though that this young lady has had to complain of remifsnefs for two months, and consequently I hope I may be forgiven this delinquency.
Give my love to Mamma and believe me truly yours ever, Charlie

Camp Camden – The location of this camp is unknown to me, however the unit was in encampment in Virginia. It appears the camp may have been around Centerville, the information is inferred from Wyckoff’s work (This means if they were there Mac found it, if they were not, then I read it wrong.) “A number of men from the Second South Carolina left the unit to join the artillery in December of 1861. In the spring, a number would leave the Sumter Volunteers from the Second South Carolina to join Hugh Garden’s artillery battery. Garden was also a member of the Second South Carolina, prior to leaving to form Garden’s Battery.” (Wyckoff, The History of the Second South Carolina, page 18 and 19. Wyckoff refers to the letters of Sergeant Robert Shand.)

Mc – refers to General George Brinton McClellan – 1846 graduate of West Point – having a small victory at Rich Mountain, West Virginia just a few days before First Manassas put Little Mac in the public eye at the right time. He was given command of the Division of the Potomac and later Commander in Chief of the entire army. A brilliant mind, and a gifted organizer, he built the army that would eventually defeat Robert E. Lee. However, he could never engage his magnificent machine in a decisive manner. He would fail in the Peninsular Campaign leading to the appointment of Pope. Wasting perhaps the most remarkable opportunity of the entire war, even knowing Lee’s plan he could only bring himself and his army to a draw at Sharpsburg. He would run against Lincoln in the election of 1864 and leave the country. He would return to become post war Governor of New Jersey. History judges him a brilliant man, who thought too much of himself and perhaps too little of the ability of his army.

"fire in Charleston" – The great fire in Charleston in December of 1861 burned a great deal of the city and is an event of some importance to all who became aware of it. The fire is mentioned in the letters of Lt. Wm. Green and Demarcus Poole. These letters are attached to this page.

"a proposition made to the 12 months volunteers by which they have a two months furlough offered them on condition of their revolunteering for two years" - This is a bounty and a furlough for those who enlisted for two years, passed by the Confederate Congress. Wyckoff found this to be the subject of much discussion among the men, and is reflected in the letters like this one. The astute among them, and Charlie was one of these, can see the coming of the hated and heinous conscript act and it appears he considers a sojourn to Missouri. Charlie’s pathway is beginning to become clear, but only in hindsight.

Mamma – The mother of Fannie Garden – and her distinguished brothers.

To Return to the Letters Index, follow General Gist; to go home, follow the flag.